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Welcome the policy dividend period! Current situation and development trend of facility agriculture in our country

Facility agriculture refers to the use of engineering technology means and industrial production of agriculture, facility agriculture can provide a suitable growth environment for plant production, so that it can grow healthily in a comfortable growth space, so as to obtain higher economic benefits. Facility agriculture is an industry with high input and high yield, capital, technology and labor intensive. It is the use of artificially built facilities, so that traditional agriculture gradually get rid of the shackles of nature, to modern factory agriculture, environmental safety agricultural production, non-toxic agriculture is the only way, but also agricultural products to break the seasonality of traditional agriculture, to achieve the anti-season of agricultural products listed, to further meet the diversified, multi-level consumer needs of an effective method.


The development of facilities agriculture in our country has met the trend

1. Opportunities for modernization

In the 13th Five-Year Plan, emphasis is placed on the development of modern agriculture, and facility agriculture is an important manifestation of agricultural modernization.

Facility agriculture will take advantage of the great opportunity of agricultural modernization to develop rapidly and promote the reform of agricultural supply side.

2. Landing of commercial capital

Agricultural ppp projects emphasize encouraging commercial capital to enter agriculture. Facility agriculture is a systematic engineering construction, so it needs a lot of capital investment. If commercial capital is quickly landed, the funding problem of facility agriculture will be effectively solved.

3. The State encourages returning home to start businesses

Facility agriculture, photovoltaic agriculture, organic agriculture and so on are the new forms of agriculture. The state promotes and encourages migrant workers to return home to start businesses, and facility agriculture projects will certainly be used by entrepreneurs as a place to show their skills.

Current situation of facility agriculture

With the penetration of modern industry into agriculture and the application of microelectronics technology, intensive facility agriculture has developed rapidly in some developed countries such as the United States, the Netherlands, and Japan, and has formed a strong pillar industry. At present, the facility agriculture in these countries has formed a complete technical system, and its modern production greenhouse has reached the ability to automatically monitor and control the temperature, light, water, gas, fertilizer and other factors in the facility by computer according to the different needs of the plant for the environment. At the same time, some vegetable and flower varieties have also realized professional production and assembly line operations from seedling breeding, planting, harvesting to packaging and listing. The application of computer in greenhouses abroad has been very popular. Biotechnology (mainly tissue culture, genetics, etc.), image processing technology, nuclear technology and Internet technology have also begun to be applied in the greenhouse. At present, the highest level of facility agriculture is "plant factory", "plant factory" is to achieve all-weather production or annual balanced production according to the design process under completely closed and intelligent control conditions, and the operation in the factory is to operate the computer. Japan, the United States and other countries have built a number of "plant factories." Because facility agriculture is carried out under relatively controllable environmental conditions, is less affected by adverse external climate conditions, and can achieve annual balanced production, its product output and quality have doubled, and the production cycle has been greatly shortened. For example, the output of cucumbers and tomatoes can reach 40-50 kg/square meter, which is 5-10 times that of open cultivation.


Facilities agriculture in our country still have some problems at present. The main manifestations are:

(1) The level of facilities is low and the ability to resist natural disasters is poor. Although China's facility cultivation area has reached 20.925 million mu, but more than 90% of the facilities are still simple type, some only have a simple rain insulation function, the ability to resist natural disasters is poor, there is no mention of the internal temperature, light, water, fertilizer, gas and other environmental factors of control, once affected by adverse climatic conditions, vegetable production and quality is seriously affected.

(2) Low degree of mechanization and high labor intensity. China's facility cultivation operation machinery and supporting equipment is not perfect, the production is still dominated by manpower, labor intensity, labor productivity is low, greenhouse per mu average annual time of more than 3600 hours, according to the per capita management area calculation is only equivalent to Japan's 1/5, Western Europe's 1/50 and the United States of 1/300.

(3) The cultivation technology of facilities is not matched, and the scientific and technological content is low. Facilities cultivation technology is not supporting, non-standard, lack of quantitative indicators, cultivation management mainly rely on experience, resulting in product output and quality always hovering at a low level.

The development trend of facility agriculture in our country

(1) Suburban facility agriculture will be promoted rapidly in area and technical level. By 2020, the urban population will account for more than 40% of the total population. To meet the demand of such a large urban population for agricultural and sideline products, and to create more agricultural products with limited land, it will inevitably require rapid development in area and technology. At the same time, facility agriculture, as an emerging industry, will be further supported in technology and capital, so that it will develop in the direction of scale, specialization and industrialization.

(2) The structure of facility agriculture will be further reasonable, and the supporting technology, operating machinery and environmental facilities within the facility will be further improved, and sustainable development will be achieved. On the basis of the introduction, digestion and absorption of greenhouse production technology in developed countries, the development of large-scale greenhouse with heat collection, heat storage and insulation capabilities; The development of light-transmitting and heat-insulating integrated materials, shading and heat-insulating integrated materials, light-regulating films and biodegradable films; Study the ecological cycle process in the greenhouse microenvironment, reduce the input of fertilizers and pesticides, control the optimal irrigation, and achieve sustainable production.

(3) A large number of high-yield, high-quality, strong resistance to deterioration, suitable for facility agriculture production varieties will be further developed and applied. To realize the practical use of genetic engineering seedlings and tissue culture seedlings, and develop greenhouse crop varieties with strong stress resistance, disease resistance and pest resistance, storage resistance and high yield.

(4) The regional radiation area of facility agriculture will be further expanded. China's facility agriculture area will radiate from the current North China, Northeast and coastal areas to the northwest and some less developed areas, because the natural resources in these areas are very favorable to the development of facility agriculture, as long as the support of capital, technology and other aspects, there will be a rapid development and rapid growth momentum. Therefore, facility agriculture will make a great contribution to China's poverty alleviation work.


How to promote the development of facility agriculture

(1) Development and design of intelligent greenhouse adapted to China's national conditions. In the case of the introduction of foreign advanced greenhouse technology, the design and development of low energy consumption, high environmental control level, suitable for China's economic development level, but also to meet the different climate conditions of the modern greenhouse.

2. Accelerating development of key technologies The covering material of China's greenhouse is poor, the performance of conventional requirements such as light transmission, chemical resistance, dust prevention is much lower than that of foreign countries, and the life is short; The environmental control system basically relies on manual experience management, semi-mechanized operation; The preparation of nutrient solution, the key equipment of soilless cultivation technology in greenhouse, is completely dependent on imports. It is an important part to accelerate the development of the key technology of the greenhouse industry in China.

3. Promoting the industrialization of facility agriculture. The main reason that the current large-scale greenhouse efficiency cannot be reflected in our country is that it has not formed large-scale, industrialization, and marketization. It should take large-scale leading enterprises as a breakthrough, market-oriented, relying on science and technology, science, industry and trade, production, supply and marketing, promote the industrialization process of facility agriculture, so that facility agriculture reflects the characteristics of high-input and high-yield high-tech industry.

(D) greenhouse related technology, management, development personnel training. At present, the high quality talents of technical development and management of facilities agriculture in our country are extremely short, and there is a big gap between the development and management of key greenhouse technologies and the foreign level. To speed up the training of high-tech personnel in facility agriculture is the key to a new level of facility agriculture.

Looking into the future of facility agriculture

Some industry experts analyze: "Due to the guidance of the policy, under the new agricultural production and management system, the vigorous promotion of agricultural demonstration parks and the emergence of new agricultural economies represented by family farms will inevitably push a wave in the development of agricultural modernization, because agricultural demonstration parks, family farms, and agricultural cooperatives of these agricultural economies produce and operate on a large scale. In order to obtain economic benefits while taking into account ecological, environmental protection and other social benefits. They have strong economic strength relative to farmers, and will actively adopt new technologies and equipment to improve production and production efficiency and reduce labor costs, which will bring huge demand for agricultural supporting industries, especially facility agriculture and soilless cultivation in the field of agricultural science and technology."

With the innovation of agricultural production and management system, China will emerge a large number of new agricultural economies, namely agricultural demonstration parks, family farms, agricultural cooperatives, etc., which will be a wave of agricultural industrialization. Under this tide of industrialization, agriculture-related supporting services, especially facility agriculture, will inevitably usher in rapid development opportunities.

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