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Current situation and future development trend of facility agriculture

Facility agriculture refers to the use of engineering technology means and industrial production of agriculture, facility agriculture can provide a suitable growth environment for plant production, so that it can grow healthily in a comfortable growth space, so as to obtain higher economic benefits. Facility agriculture is an industry with high input and high yield, capital, technology and labor intensive. It is the use of artificially built facilities, so that traditional agriculture gradually get rid of the shackles of nature, to modern factory agriculture, environmental safety agricultural production, non-toxic agriculture is the only way, but also agricultural products to break the seasonality of traditional agriculture, to achieve the anti-season of agricultural products listed, to further meet the diversified, multi-level consumer needs of an effective method.

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With the penetration of modern industry into agriculture and the application of microelectronics technology, intensive facility agriculture has developed rapidly in some developed countries such as the United States, the Netherlands, and Japan, and has formed a strong pillar industry. At present, the facility agriculture in these countries has formed a complete technical system, and its modern production greenhouse has reached the ability to automatically monitor and control the temperature, light, water, gas, fertilizer and other factors in the facility by computer according to the different needs of the plant for the environment. At the same time, some vegetable and flower varieties have also realized professional production and assembly line operations from seedling breeding, planting, harvesting to packaging and listing. The application of computer in greenhouses abroad has been very popular.

Nowadays, there are still some problems in facility agriculture in our country, mainly as follows:

(1) The level of facilities is low and the ability to resist natural disasters is poor. Although China's facility cultivation area has reached 20.925 million mu, but more than 90% of the facilities are still simple type, some only have a simple rain insulation function, the ability to resist natural disasters is poor, there is no mention of the internal temperature, light, water, fertilizer, gas and other environmental factors of control, once affected by adverse climatic conditions, vegetable production and quality is seriously affected.

(2) Low degree of mechanization and high labor intensity. The operation machinery and supporting equipment of facility cultivation in China are not perfect, the production is still dominated by manpower, labor intensity, labor productivity is low, the facility cultivation technology is not matched, and the scientific and technological content is low. Facilities cultivation technology is not supporting, non-standard, lack of quantitative indicators, cultivation management mainly rely on experience, resulting in product output and quality always hovering at a low level.

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With the innovation of agricultural production and management system, China will emerge a large number of new agricultural economies, namely agricultural demonstration parks, family farms, agricultural cooperatives, etc., which will be a wave of agricultural industrialization. Under this tide of industrialization, agriculture-related supporting services, especially facility agriculture, will inevitably usher in rapid development opportunities.

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