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How to manage spring vegetable production in North China?

At present, the winter stubble vegetables in the northern solar greenhouse are in the harvest period, the winter and spring stubble fruits and vegetables are mostly in the vegetative growth period, and the spring early cultivated vegetables in the greenhouse are about to start to settle, and the overwintering open field vegetables are gradually recovering. In order to improve the production technology level and ensure the stable supply of vegetables, the planting management Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs organized the national agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, the vegetable expert guidance group of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, and the national bulk vegetable industry technical system to study and put forward technical guidance opinions on the production and management of vegetables in the northern spring.

First, facilities vegetables

(1) Temperature management.

Winter stubble vegetables: The minimum temperature in the greenhouse should be kept above 10℃, and the film should be hung near the ground of the entrance and the front roof, and the buffer film should be hung below the upper vent to enhance thermal insulation. In case of extreme weather with strong cooling, multi-layer insulation can be covered or temporary heating such as heating block and electric furnace can be used.

Winter and spring stubble fruits and vegetables: the focus of management is to promote the rooting of strong seedlings and flowering fruit, early temperature during the day to maintain 26-30 ℃, the minimum temperature at night to maintain 13-15 ℃, strong growth can be appropriate to reduce the night temperature, weak growth should be appropriate to increase the night temperature.

(2) Light management.

The light intensity and duration can be increased and photosynthesis can be promoted by covering the insulation quilt in the morning and at night, installing the plant fill light lamp and hanging reflective film on the back wall. In case of cloudy days or rain and snow weather, try to uncover the insulation during the day, so that vegetables accept scattered light. Long Yin and sunny weather, before and after noon should be properly carried out back mat management (put half of the insulation), to avoid water loss of plants wilting.

(3) Humidity management.

Increase the ventilation time and ventilation volume under the premise of ensuring the temperature. When the humidity is too high, the top ventilation for about 20 minutes after the insulation is uncovered is carried out, and then ventilation management is carried out according to the growth of vegetables and the indoor temperature. Continuous rain and snow weather, ventilation for a short time of 10-20 minutes at noon when the temperature is high.

(4) Water and fertilizer management.

Water management should take small water under mulching film, or drip irrigation under film, micro-sprinkler irrigation. Winter stubble vegetables: early spring fertilization should adhere to the principle of a small number of times.

Winter and spring stubble fruits and vegetables: water as little as possible before fruit setting, if the soil is dry, water can be appropriate.

(5) Plant management.

In spring, greenhouse vegetables are prone to premature root aging and growth point atrophy, so it is necessary to properly drain fruits, remove small fruits and deformed fruits, timely harvest mature fruits, timely rectification of branches and vines, and remove old and diseased leaves.

6. Prevention and control of diseases and insect pests.

Strengthen disease and insect monitoring, seize the key prevention and control period, and implement green prevention and control measures such as color plate trapping and killing and insect prevention nets. Remove diseased plants and leaves in time to prevent the spread of disease. Scientific use of high efficiency, low toxicity, low residue pesticides, priority to use broad spectrum smoke agent or micro powder to prevent disease, through the smoke machine, powder machine and other equipment application. Strictly implement the safe use interval of pesticides, so as to rotate the use of drugs.

Two, open vegetables

(1) Seedling management.

Intensive seedling rearing technology was adopted to cultivate strong seedling of open field vegetables planted in early spring. Reduce the seedbed temperature, increase the temperature difference between day and night, fruits and vegetables during the day temperature does not exceed 25 ° C, 8-10 ° C at night.

(2) Field management.

The newly planted vegetables should be covered with plastic film, and the water should be controlled properly after planting to increase the soil temperature and promote slow seedling. In case of cold weather after planting, light covering materials such as non-woven fabric, sunshade net and waste shed film can be used to cover insulation. If the overwintering vegetables in the open field are affected by low temperature in winter, they should be watered and fertilized after greening in early spring to promote root growth.

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