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Facility agriculture + high value-added agricultural products, a new path for agricultural development

Facility agriculture is a systematic engineering covering automatic control, varieties, horticultural technology, cultivation technology and management, and its development is one of the important symbols of the level of agricultural modernization. With the upgrading of people's consumption concept, the requirements for food quality, safety and nutrition are getting higher and higher, so the market prospects of high value-added agricultural products based on facility agriculture technology are broad.

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First, the characteristics of facility agriculture

Facility agriculture is an agriculture that uses modern and digital technology and equipment to artificially change the natural environment and provide relatively controllable and even the most suitable environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, light, water, fertilizer and gas for the production of animals and plants, so as to get rid of the dependence on the natural environment for effective production to a certain extent.

Facility agriculture has the characteristics of high input, high technology content, high quality, high yield and high benefit, and is the most dynamic modern new agriculture. It can realize the precise control of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, light and moisture, which is conducive to the growth and quality improvement of high value-added agricultural products, reduce the occurrence of diseases and pests, and improve the safety of agricultural products.

Second, the development status of facility agriculture in our country

First, the scale of development is large. Data show that the area of facility horticultural crops in China alone is more than 42 million mu, accounting for more than 80% of the total area of facility agriculture in the world. In terms of facility types, China's facility agriculture is currently dominated by solar greenhouses, plastic greenhouses and small and medium-sized arch sheds, of which solar greenhouses are original in our country. In terms of planting structure, vegetables (including edible fungi) occupy 80% of the total area of the facility, and the rest are mainly fruit trees and flowers.

Second, high production efficiency. Facility agriculture has the characteristics of intensive and efficient, and the average yield of facility agriculture is more than 20 times that of field crops and 4-5 times that of open field horticultural crops. Taking facility cucumber as an example, its average yield, output value and profit per mu are 1.67 times, 2.24 times and 2.86 times of open field cucumber, respectively. From the perspective of resource conservation and utilization, the high-yield effect of facility agriculture can save more than 30 million mu of high-quality land. Due to the adoption of intensive production, facility agriculture also has significant advantages in water saving, energy saving, fertilizer saving, medicine saving and other aspects, and ecological benefits are obvious.

Third, the development path and direction of facilities agriculture in our country

Although facility agriculture and high value-added agricultural products have broad prospects for development, they still face challenges such as technology research and development, market promotion, and personnel training. Therefore, we need to scientifically lay out the development path of facility agriculture, and in the future, facility agriculture should make efforts from five dimensions: policy support, technological renewal, industrial agglomeration, variety diversification, and collaboration with high value-added agricultural products.

First, policy support. Government departments work together to plan the layout of facility agriculture, introduce relevant policies in a timely manner, encourage farmers and enterprises to invest in modern facility agriculture, and establish special agricultural development funds to provide financial support for the development of modern agricultural facility agriculture.

Second, technological update. In the future, the demand for facility agricultural engineering is not only the construction of basic hardware equipment, but also the combination of agricultural mechanization, automation, artificial intelligence technology and other disciplines. The use of "Cloud big Things intelligent connection", technology iteration, transformation and upgrading of existing planting and breeding facilities, improve the supply capacity of facility products, and promote the modernization of facility agriculture.

Third, industrial agglomeration. According to different agricultural ecological types, industrial basic conditions, and product market demand, the development layout of facility agriculture should be rationally planned, and a number of modern facility agriculture industrial belts with industrial cluster development, advanced factor agglomeration, complete industrial chain, and strong supply capacity should be built. Explore the use of non-cultivated land resources such as the Gobi and desert, develop Gobi agriculture, enrich agricultural formats, and expand industrial space.

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Fourth, diversity of varieties. Relying on the production base of improved crop varieties, cultivate facility vegetables, melons, fruits, edible fungi and other characteristic varieties according to local conditions, increase the development and protection of varieties suitable for facility cultivation, and constantly enrich the types of facility varieties.

Fifth, cooperate with high value-added agricultural products. The integration of facility agriculture and high value-added agricultural products is conducive to the integration and value-added of agricultural products industry chain, through the integration of planting, processing, sightseeing and leisure functions in the facility, the formation of a new model of integrated development of the first, second and third industries, and the expansion of agricultural added value space. Facility agriculture provides stable quality assurance for agricultural products and helps brand operation of high value-added agricultural products. The combination of facility agriculture and high value-added agricultural products has created a large number of job opportunities for rural areas and injected new momentum into rural revitalization.

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